Women of Troy (N.Y.): The Teenaged Irish Immigrants Who Started the First Permanent Women’s...

Suffragist Susan B. Anthony recalled the Collar Laundry Union of Troy, New York as “the best organized” union of women workers that “I ever...
civil-war

Women in the Immigrants’ Civil War

All the articles discussing women. 1. Immigrant America on the Eve of the Civil War   - Take a swing around the United States and...

Irish Immigrant Henry Sweeney and the Ku Klux Klan in Texas in 1868

Henry Sweeney had a successful stint as head of the Freedmen’s Bureau at Helena, Arkansas in the first two years of Reconstruction. The Irish-born...

When Black Soldiers and Immigrant Officers Built a School for the Orphans of Slavery

In 1866, Irish immigrant Henry Sweeney was a man who had to constantly balance the interests of tens of thousands of white and black...

Irish Immigrant Henry Sweeney in the First Year of Reconstruction as Freedmen’s Bureau Agent

When Irish immigrant Henry Sweeney became the first head of the Freedmen’s Bureau in Helena, Arkansas, he was already a respected officer in the...

Irish Captain Henry Sweeney Takes Command of a Company of Iowa African Americans

When Irish immigrant Henry Sweeney finally received his long-sought-after promotion to the rank of captain in 1863, it was to command Black troops from...

Irish Immigrant Henry Sweeney Wanted to Command Black Troops After Emancipation

The 32 year-old Irish immigrant knew he had the makings of an officer. So did the many officers who knew him as an intelligent...

Henry Sweeney: From Dublin to the U.S. Army and Into the Cauldron of Civil...

When Fort Sumter was attacked in 1861 and young volunteers flooded into the Union Army to put down the “Rebellion,” Henry Sweeney was already...