This page provides links to articles on immigrants in the Reconstruction Era 1865 to 1877.
1. German General Carl Schurz Begins His Investigation of the Post-War South
2. Carl Schurz Warned That a “System of Terrorism” Was Taking Hold in the Post-War South in 1865
3. A Scottish Socialist and a German General Work to Help Slaves Become Freedpeople-Robert Dale Owen, Carl Schurz and the founding of the Freedmen’s Bureau.
4. German Immigrants and the End of Slavery in Missouri
5. 13th Amendment: Immigrants and the end of slavery in America
6. Prelude to a Reconstruction Riot: Irish and Blacks in Memphis 1866
7. The Memphis Massacre of 1866: A Race Riot Pits Irish Immigrants Against Newly Freed Slaves
8. Black Citizenship, Frederick Douglass and German Immigrant Professor Francis Lieber Confront President Andrew Johnson Part of The Coming of the 14th Amendment
9. U.S. Grant Atones for His Order Expelling the Jews During the 1864 Election
10. Immigrant Journalist Henry Villard Visited One of the Earliest Experiments in Reconstruction in 1863 at What Is Now the New Reconstruction National Monument
11. The Immigrant Journalist Henry Villard After the Civil War
12. Felix Brannigan: How a Racist Irish Immigrant Soldier Became a Defender of Black Freedom
13. Frederick Douglas Spoke Out Against a Ban on Chinese Immigration in 1867
The Immortal Irishman: Thomas Francis Meagher by Timothy Egan