Appomattox: The Capture of a Confederate Army & the Fall from Grace of an Immigrant General

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The surrender of Robert E. Lee's army at Appomattox on April 9, 1865 signaled the end of any possibility of the Confederacy becoming an independent country.

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German immigrant General Godfrey Weitzel became famous when this telegram from him reached the American people on April 3, 1865:

“We took possession of Richmond at 8:15 a.m. I captured many guns & c. The rebels evidently left in great haste. The city is on fire in two places. I am using every effort to put out the fire. A great many people are here and the whole is a mob. We were received everywhere with enthusiastic expressions of joy.” 1

concord-mass-richmondThis April 10, 1865 broadside announced a dance in Concord, Mass. celebrating the capture of Richmond.

As could be expected, the news set off celebrations throughout the North. Many newspapers put Weitzel’s name in their headlines or highlighted the role of the black troops under his command. The formerly little known general received the most notoriety of his life. Soon after toasts were offered to Weitzel and his men, Lincoln came to Richmond. 2

Richmond-news-collageNorthern newspapers headlined the occupation of the Confederate capital of Richmond by General Weitzel and his black troops.

Right after taking control of the Confederate capital, Weitzel had occupied the former White House of the Confederacy. Lincoln went to visit the general there and he sat in Jefferson Davis’s chair behind the desk the Confederate president had spent long years toiling at. Lincoln toured the house, the first of many tourists to visit the site, with one of Weitzel’s aides. Weitzel himself, taken by surprise by news that Lincoln was in Richmond, had been rushing about the city trying to find the president. He finally heard that Lincoln was already at Weitzel’s own quarters, and he arrived back at the Confederate White House in some embarrassment.3

jeff-davis-deskThe Confederate White House has been preserved. This is the room where Lincoln sat at the Confederate president’s desk.

Lincoln learned that several prominent Confederate civilians wanted to meet with him to explore ending the war without further bloodshed. Lincoln agreed to a meeting, specifying that he would be accompanied by General Weitzel. Former United States Supreme Court Judge John Campbell, who was the Confederacy’s Assistant Secretary of War, represented the pro-peace Southerners.4

During the closed door meeting, Weitzel wrote later, Campbell asked that the Virginia Legislature be allowed to convene for the purpose of withdrawing from the Confederacy and thereby taking Virginia out of the war. This would lead to the dissolution of Robert E. Lee’s Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, even then being pursued by Ulysses Grant as it retreated southwest from Richmond. Lincoln was interested in the proposal and asked Campbell and Weitzel to try to assemble the legislature.5

Weitzel wrote later that he;

had considerable conversation with [Lincoln] in regard to the treatment of the conquered people. The pith of his answers was that he did not wish to give me any orders on that subject, but as he expressed it: “If I were in your place, I’d let ‘em up easy – let ‘em up easy.”6

Weitzel followed Lincoln’s directions, publishing a call for the legislature to meet, distributing food to the poor of the city, and allowing the churches to reopen for Palm Sunday services. These three acts would derail his military career. 7

On April 6, Weitzel received a telegram from Secretary of War Edwin Stanton demanding to know under what authority he was feeding the hungry. A few days later he received another telegram chastising him for allowing Episcopalians to hold services without Weitzel ordering them to pray for Abraham Lincoln. The Episcopal ministers had prayed for people in authority on the first Palm Sunday under Union control, but had not named Lincoln in their prayers. Stanton telegraphed him:

It has just been reported to this Department that you have, at the instance of Mr. Campbell, consented that service should be performed in the Episcopal churches of Richmond to-day without the usual prayer said in loyal churches of that denomination for the President . . . and that you have even agreed to waive that condition. If such has been your action it is strongly condemned by this Department…8

Lincoln had written to Weitzel that if the old legislature of Confederate Virginia tried to meet to take the state out of the war he was to “give them permission and protection.” When Stanton saw that Weitzel was allowing the legislature to meet, he immediately countermanded the order, even though Weitzel was following Lincoln’s directions. Ulysses Grant later said that “This was characteristic of Mr. Stanton. He was a man who never questioned his own authority, and who always did in wartime what he wanted to do.”9

While Weitzel was enduring a barrage of critical telegrams from Stanton, Lincoln tried to rescue the immigrant general with an exculpatory note assuring Weitzel that Lincoln had “no doubt that you have acted in what appeared to you to be the spirit and temper manifested by me while [in Richmond.]” In confirmation that the president had authorized the meeting of the Virginia legislature, Lincoln ended the note by asking Weitzel;  “Is there any sign of the rebel legislature coming together on the understanding of my letter to you?”10

Although the president seemed to support the German general, Lincoln would be dead a few days later, and Weitzel would lose his protector against Stanton.

Appomattox-CampaignPetersburg (A) fell to Union troops on April 3, 1862. The same day, General Weitzel’s United States Colored Troops (USCT) occupied Richmond (B).  On April 4, Lincoln visited Weitzel in Richmond. On April 6, Union troops captured a quarter of Lee’s fleeing army after a sharp fight at Sailor’s Creek (C). On April 7, Irish-born General Thomas Smyth fought to prevent the burning of a bridge at High Bridge (D). The following day he was mortally wounded in a small battle in Farmville, becoming the last Union general killed in the war (E). On April 9, Robert E. Lee surrendered the premier Confederate Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Court House (F). Lee never reached a point (G) where he hoped to turn south and head for Danville, Virginia where Confederate President Davis had moved the government. Note: On the map Confederate movements are in red and Union movements are in blue. Map Source: wikipedia.org

At the same time that Weitzel was caught in a telegraphic battle with the Secretary of War, seven of his black regiments were on the trail of Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s army which fled westward after the April 3rd fall of Richmond and Petersburg. Lee hoped to link up with the Confederate Army of Tennessee, then being chased through North Carolina by Union General William T. Sherman. Lee’s tired men were marching night and day to try to stay ahead of their Union pursuers. Every mile they marched the Confederate army grew smaller as men collapsed from exhaustion or gave up hope of victory and deserted. 11

capture-of-ewells-corps-sailors-creeThe Capture of General Richard Ewell’s Corps at Sailor’s Creek on April 6th, 1865 from a drawing made at the time by Alfred Waud. A quarter of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia was killed, wounded, or captured during the battle.

Lee was desperate to reach supplies at Farmville, Virginia, but his worn out troops were caught in their march towards food on April 6 just east of the town at Sailor’s Creek. Eight Confederate generals were captured there and almost a quarter of Lee’s soldiers were captured, killed or put out of the war by wounds. 12

The next day, the remaining Confederate troops continued their march west. They hoped to slow the Union pursuers by setting fire to the bridges over the Appomattox River at High Bridge. A quick advance by the Irish immigrant Brigadier General Thomas Smyth’s brigade helped secure this route for the Union forces.13

general-smythBrigadier General Thomas Smyth

General Smyth now led his men against Confederates at Farmville. With every Union soldier aware that their enemy could not survive much longer, Smyth put his men into position to assault the Southern line. As his men advanced, Smyth was hit by a rebel bullet in the face. Lee’s army had only two days left to live and so did Smyth.14

General Thomas Smyth from Cork Ireland would be the last Union general killed in the Civil War.

appomattoxConfederate General Robert E. Lee (r) surrendered to Ulysses Grant (l) on April 9, 1865, at Appomattox Court House. Instead of imprisoning the captured rebels, Grant fed them and allowed them to go home.

Video: The Battle of Sailor’s Creek a talk by National Park Service Ranger and Historian John Heiser

Video: Elizabeth Varon Discusses How Appomattox Was Remembered After the Civil War

Video: Appomattox Through the Eyes of Confederate General James Longstreet

Resources:

The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln reproduces much of the correspondence related to the Stanton/Weitzel dispute.

The correspondence between Grant and Lee preliminary to the surrender at Appomattox has been posted by the Civil War Trust.

The National Archives has posted the Articles of Agreement Relating to the Surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia (1865) also known as the Appomattox Surrender Agreement between Lee and Grant.

The National Park Service web site for Appomattox has a lot of useful information. Among the most interesting features are several 360 degree photos of the park and the interiors of historic buildings.

Here is the Civil War Trust’s Animated Map of the last two months of the war.

You can find a talk by NPS Ranger Troy Harman on “Famous Utterances on the Road to Appomattox: The Importance of Language and Rhetoric in the War’s Final Hours” at the Gettysburg National Military Park Visitor Center.

This 2010 panel discussion on Appomattox included Joan Waugh of UCLA, Elizabeth Varon of the University of Virginia, and Caroline Janney of Purdue.

Chris Calkins recently presented this talk on the Battles of Sailor’s Creek.

Patrick Schroeder gave this talk on the Battles of Appomattox Station and Appomattox Court House.

Here is a talk by Ron Wilson on the surrender by Robert E. Lee.

Elizabeth Varon delivered an intriguing talk on the “Legacies of Appomattox:  Lee’s Surrender in History and Memory.”

Finally, here is Ranger Mike Gorman’s examination of the photographic record of Richmond in 1865.

Thanks to Al Mackey for alerting me to several of these video resources. His blog is a great place to find videos about the Civil War.


Sources:

1. Young General and the Fall of Richmond: The Life and Career of Godfrey Weitzel by G. William Quatman published by Ohio University Press (2014) Kindle Location 6099.;  ENTRY of THE UNITED STATES FORCES into RICHMOND, VA. April 3, 1865 CALLING TOGETHER OF THE VIRGINIA LEGISLATURE AND REVOCATION OF THE SAME by GODFREY WEITZEL Major, Corps of Engineers AND Brevet Major General, United States Army published by The Richmond Civil War Centennial Committee (1965)
2. Young General and the Fall of Richmond: The Life and Career of Godfrey Weitzel by G. William Quatman published by Ohio University Press (2014);  ENTRY of THE UNITED STATES FORCES into RICHMOND, VA. April 3, 1865 CALLING TOGETHER OF THE VIRGINIA LEGISLATURE AND REVOCATION OF THE SAME by GODFREY WEITZEL Major, Corps of Engineers AND Brevet Major General, United States Army published by The Richmond Civil War Centennial Committee (1965)
3. Young General and the Fall of Richmond: The Life and Career of Godfrey Weitzel by G. William Quatman published by Ohio University Press (2014) Kindle Location 6314;  ENTRY of THE UNITED STATES FORCES into RICHMOND, VA. April 3, 1865 CALLING TOGETHER OF THE VIRGINIA LEGISLATURE AND REVOCATION OF THE SAME by GODFREY WEITZEL Major, Corps of Engineers AND Brevet Major General, United States Army published by The Richmond Civil War Centennial Committee (1965)
4. Young General and the Fall of Richmond: The Life and Career of Godfrey Weitzel by G. William Quatman published by Ohio University Press (2014) Kindle Location 6346;  ENTRY of THE UNITED STATES FORCES into RICHMOND, VA. April 3, 1865 CALLING TOGETHER OF THE VIRGINIA LEGISLATURE AND REVOCATION OF THE SAME by GODFREY WEITZEL Major, Corps of Engineers AND Brevet Major General, United States Army published by The Richmond Civil War Centennial Committee (1965)
5. Young General and the Fall of Richmond: The Life and Career of Godfrey Weitzel by G. William Quatman published by Ohio University Press (2014) Kindle Location 6366;  ENTRY of THE UNITED STATES FORCES into RICHMOND, VA. April 3, 1865 CALLING TOGETHER OF THE VIRGINIA LEGISLATURE AND REVOCATION OF THE SAME by GODFREY WEITZEL Major, Corps of Engineers AND Brevet Major General, United States Army published by The Richmond Civil War Centennial Committee (1965)
6. Young General and the Fall of Richmond: The Life and Career of Godfrey Weitzel by G. William Quatman published by Ohio University Press (2014);  ENTRY of THE UNITED STATES FORCES into RICHMOND, VA. April 3, 1865 CALLING TOGETHER OF THE VIRGINIA LEGISLATURE AND REVOCATION OF THE SAME by GODFREY WEITZEL Major, Corps of Engineers AND Brevet Major General, United States Army published by The Richmond Civil War Centennial Committee (1965)
7. Young General and the Fall of Richmond: The Life and Career of Godfrey Weitzel by G. William Quatman published by Ohio University Press (2014);  ENTRY of THE UNITED STATES FORCES into RICHMOND, VA. April 3, 1865 CALLING TOGETHER OF THE VIRGINIA LEGISLATURE AND REVOCATION OF THE SAME by GODFREY WEITZEL Major, Corps of Engineers AND Brevet Major General, United States Army published by The Richmond Civil War Centennial Committee (1965)
8. Young General and the Fall of Richmond: The Life and Career of Godfrey Weitzel by G. William Quatman published by Ohio University Press (2014);  ENTRY of THE UNITED STATES FORCES into RICHMOND, VA. April 3, 1865 CALLING TOGETHER OF THE VIRGINIA LEGISLATURE AND REVOCATION OF THE SAME by GODFREY WEITZEL Major, Corps of Engineers AND Brevet Major General, United States Army published by The Richmond Civil War Centennial Committee (1965); The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln reproduces much of the correspondence related to the Stanton/Weitzel dispute.
9. Young General and the Fall of Richmond: The Life and Career of Godfrey Weitzel by G. William Quatman published by Ohio University Press (2014);  ENTRY of THE UNITED STATES FORCES into RICHMOND, VA. April 3, 1865 CALLING TOGETHER OF THE VIRGINIA LEGISLATURE AND REVOCATION OF THE SAME by GODFREY WEITZEL Major, Corps of Engineers AND Brevet Major General, United States Army published by The Richmond Civil War Centennial Committee (1965); The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln reproduces much of the correspondence related to the Stanton/Weitzel dispute.
10. Young General and the Fall of Richmond: The Life and Career of Godfrey Weitzel by G. William Quatman published by Ohio University Press (2014);  ENTRY of THE UNITED STATES FORCES into RICHMOND, VA. April 3, 1865 CALLING TOGETHER OF THE VIRGINIA LEGISLATURE AND REVOCATION OF THE SAME by GODFREY WEITZEL Major, Corps of Engineers AND Brevet Major General, United States Army published by The Richmond Civil War Centennial Committee (1965); The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln reproduces much of the correspondence related to the Stanton/Weitzel dispute.
11. Young General and the Fall of Richmond: The Life and Career of Godfrey Weitzel by G. William Quatman published by Ohio University Press (2014);  ENTRY of THE UNITED STATES FORCES into RICHMOND, VA. April 3, 1865 CALLING TOGETHER OF THE VIRGINIA LEGISLATURE AND REVOCATION OF THE SAME by GODFREY WEITZEL Major, Corps of Engineers AND Brevet Major General, United States Army published by The Richmond Civil War Centennial Committee (1965)
12. Lee’s Last Retreat: The Flight to Appomattox by William Marvel published by University of North Carolina Press.
13. Lee’s Last Retreat: The Flight to Appomattox by William Marvel published by University of North Carolina Press.
14. Lee’s Last Retreat: The Flight to Appomattox by William Marvel published by University of North Carolina Press.

The Immigrants’ Civil War is a series that examines the role of immigrants in our bloodiest war. Articles will appear twice monthly between 2011 and 2017. Here are the articles we have published so far:

1. Immigrant America on the Eve of the Civil War – Take a swing around the United States and see where immigrants were coming from and where they were living in 1861.

2. 1848: The Year that Created Immigrant America – Revolutions in Europe, famine and oppression in Ireland, and the end of the Mexican War made 1848 a key year in American immigration history.

3. Carl Schurz: From German Radical to American Abolitionist– A teenaged revolutionary of 1848, Carl Schurz brought his passion for equality with him to America.

4. Immigrant Leader Carl Schurz Tells Lincoln to Stand Firm Against Slavery.

5. …And the War Came to Immigrant America -The impact of the firing on Fort Sumter on America’s immigrants

6. The Rabbi Who Seceded From the South

7. The Fighting 69th-Irish New York Declares War

8. The Germans Save St. Louis for the Union

9. New York’s Irish Rush to Save Washington

10. Immigrant Day Laborers Help Build the First Fort to Protect Washington-The Fighting 69th use their construction skills.

11. Carl Schurz Meets With Lincoln To Arm the Germans

12. Immigrants Rush to Join the Union Army-Why?– The reasons immigrants gave for enlisting early in the war.

13. Why the Germans Fought for the Union?

14. Why Did the Irish Fight When They Were So Despised?

15. The “Sons of Garibaldi” Join the Union Army

16. The Irish Tigers From Louisiana

17. Immigrant Regiments on Opposite Banks of Bull Run -The Fighting 69th and the Louisiana Tigers

18. The St. Louis Germans Set Out To Free Missouri

19. Wilson’s Creek Drowns Immigrant Dream of Free Missouri

20. English-Only in 1861: No Germans Need Apply

21. After Bull Run: Mutineers, Scapegoats, and the Dead

22. St. Louis Germans Revived by Missouri Emancipation Proclamation

23. Jews Fight the Ban on Rabbis as Chaplains

24. Lincoln Dashes German Immigrants Hopes for Emancipation

25. When Hatred of Immigrants Stopped the Washington Monument from Being Built

26. Inside the Mind of a Know Nothing

27. The Evolution of the Know Nothings

28. The Know Nothings Launch a Civil War Against Immigrant America

29. The Know Nothings: From Triumph to Collapse

30. The Lasting Impact of the Know Nothings on Immigrant America.

31. Lincoln, the Know Nothings, and Immigrant America.

32. Irish Green and Black America: Race on the Edge of Civil War.

33. The Democratic Party and the Racial Consciousness of Irish Immigrants Before the Civil War

34. The Confederates Move Against Latino New Mexico

35. Nuevomexicanos Rally As Confederates Move Towards Santa Fe—But For Which Side?

36. The Confederate Army in New Mexico Strikes at Valverde

37. The Swedish Immigrant Who Saved the U.S. Navy

38. The Confederates Capture Santa Fe and Plot Extermination

39. A German Regiment Fights for “Freedom and Justice” at Shiloh-The 32nd Indiana under Col. August Willich.

40. The Know Nothing Colonel and the Irish Soldier Confronting slavery and bigotry.

41. Did Immigrants Hand New Orleans Over to the Union Army?

42. Did New Orleans’ Immigrants See Union Soldiers As Occupiers or Liberators?

43. Union Leader Ben Butler Seeks Support in New Orleans-When General Ben Butler took command in New Orleans in 1862, it was a Union outpost surrounded by Confederates. Butler drew on his experience as a pro-immigrant politician to win over the city’s Irish and Germans.

44. Union General Ben Butler Leverages Immigrant Politics in New Orleans

45. Thomas Meager: The Man Who Created the Irish Brigade

46. Thomas Meagher: The Irish Rebel Joins the Union Army

47. Recruiting the Irish Brigade-Creating the Irish American

48. Cross Keys: A German Regiment’s Annihilation in the Shenandoah Valley

49. The Irish Brigade Moves Towards Richmond-The Irish brigade in the Peninsula Campaign from March 17 to June 2, 1862.

50. Peninsula Emancipation: Irish Soldiers Take Steps on the Road to Freedom-The Irish Brigade and Irish soldiers from Boston free slaves along the march to Richmond.

51. Slaves Immigrate from the Confederacy to the United States During the Peninsula Campaign

52. The Irish 9th Massachusetts Cut Off During the Seven Days Battles

53. Union Defeat and an Irish Medal of Honor at the End of the Seven Days

54. Making Immigrant Soldiers into Citizens-Congress changed the immigration laws to meet the needs of a nation at war.

55. Carl Schurz: To Win the Civil War End Slavery

56. Carl Schurz: From Civilian to General in One Day

57. Did Anti-German Bigotry Help Cause Second Bull Run Defeat?

58. Immigrant Soldiers Chasing Lee Into Maryland

59. Scottish Highlanders Battle at South Mountain

60. Emancipation 150: “All men are created equal, black and white”– A German immigrant reacts to the Emancipation Proclamation

61. The Irish Brigade at Antietam

62. Private Peter Welsh Joins the Irish Brigade

63. Preliminaries to Emancipation: Race, the Irish, and Lincoln

64. The Politics of Emancipation: Lincoln Suffers Defeat

65. Carl Schurz Blames Lincoln for Defeat

66. The Irish Brigade and Virginia’s Civilians Black and White

67. The Irish Brigade and the Firing of General McClellan

68. General Grant Expells the Jews

69. The Irish Brigade Moves Towards Its Destruction At Fredericksburg.

70. Fredericksburg: The Worst Day in the Young Life of Private McCarter of the Irish Brigade

71. Forever Free: Emancipation New Year Day 1863

72. Private William McCarter of the Irish Brigade Hospitalized After Fredericksburg

73. The Immigrant Women That Nursed Private McCarter After Fredericksburg

74. Nursing Nuns of the Civil War

75. The Biases Behind Grant’s Order Expelling the Jews

76. The Jewish Community Reacts to Grant’s Expulsion Order

77. Lincoln Overturns Grant’s Order Against the Jews

78. Irish Families Learn of the Slaughter at Fredericksburg

79. Requiem for the Irish Brigade

80. St. Patrick’s Day in the Irish Brigade

81. Student Asks: Why Don’t We Learn More About Immigrants in the Civil War?

82. Missouri’s German Unionists: From Defeat to Uncertain Victory

83. Missouri Germans Contest Leadership of Unionist Cause

84. German Leader Franz Sigel’s Victory Earns a Powerful Enemy

85. Immigrant Unionists Marching Towards Pea Ridge

86. German Immigrants at the Battle of Pea Ridge: Opening Moves

87. Pea Ridge: The German Unionists Outflanked

88. German Immigrants at the Battle of Pea Ridge

89. The Organization of the “German” XI Corps

90. The Irish Brigade on the Road to Chancellorsville

91. The “German” XI Corps on the Eve of Chancellorsville

92. The “Germans Run Away” at Chancellorsville

93. The New York Times, the Germans, and the Anatomy of a Scapegoat at Chancellorsville

94. An Irish Soldier Between Chancellorsville and Gettysburg

95. Lee’s Army Moves Towards Gettysburg: Black Refugees Flee

96. Iron Brigade Immigrants Arrive at Gettysburg

97. Iron Brigade Immigrants Go Into Battle the First Day at Gettysburg

98. The “German” XI Corps at Gettysburg July 1, 1863

99. An Irish Colonel and the Defense of Little Round Top on the Second Day at Gettysburg

100. A Prayer Before Death for the Irish Brigade at Gettysburg: July 2, 1863

101. The Irish Regiment that Ended “Pickett’s Charge”: July 3, 1863

102. Five Points on the Edge of the Draft Riots

103. Before the Draft Riots: The Cultivation of Division

104. The New York Draft Riots Begin

105. Convulsion of Violence: The First Day of the New York Draft Riots

106. The Draft Riots End in a Sea of Blood-July 14-15, 1863.

107. Pat Cleburne: The Irish Confederate and the Know Nothings

108. Killing Pat Cleburne: Know Nothing Violence

109. Pat Cleburne: Arresting a General, Becoming a General

110. The Immigrant Story Behind “Twelve Years a Slave”

111. A German Immigrant Woman’s Gettysburg Address

112. Pat Cleburne: The Irish Confederate’s Emancipation Proclamation

113. Pat Cleburne: The South Can’t Use Black Soldiers Without Ending Slavery

114. The Suppression of Pat Cleburne’s Emancipation Proposal

115. An Irish Immigrant Colonel’s Warnings Ignored at Chickamauga

116. An Immigrant Colonel’s Fighting Retreat at Chickamauga

117. August Willich: German Socialist at Chickamauga

118. Hans Heg:at Chickamauga: Norwegian Commander on the Eve of Battle

119. Ivan and Nadine Turchin: Russian Revolutionary Aristocrats at Chickamauga

120. German Immigrants Pinned Down at Chickamauga

121. Hans Heg: To Die for His Adopted Country at Chickamauga

122. Patrick Guiney: An Irish Colonel on the Edge of the Wilderness

123. Immigrants March Out of The Wilderness and Into a Wicked Hail of Gunfire

124. Peter Welsh in the Irish Brigade’s Purgatory at Spotsylvania

125. Peter Welsh: What Sacrifice Must the Immigrant Make for His Adopted Land?

126. A Second Irish Brigade’s Catastrophe at a Forgotten Fight Near Fredericksburg

127. An Irish Man and a French Woman Between Spotsylvania and Cold Harbor

128. Two Irish Brigades Swept Away by a Hurricane from Hell at Cold Harbor

129. Petersburg: The Start of a Ten Month Siege that Devoured Men and Disabled the Irish Brigade

130. A Volcano in Virginia: The Battle of the Crater

131. 1864 Election: The Immigrant Voter & Abraham Lincoln

132. August Belmont: The German Jewish Immigrant Who Led the Opposition to Lincoln’s 1864 Reelection

133. Lincoln and the Superiority of the “Negro” over the Irish

134. Lincoln’s Germans and the Election of 1864

135. Lincoln’s German Lawyer Comes Out Swinging in the Election of 1864

136. Lincoln Wins the Election of 1864 With Immigrant Votes

137. American Refugee Camp in Civil War Kentucky Destroyed by Union Soldiers

138. Kentucky Civil War Refugee Camp Reborn and Reconstructed After Expulsions

139. Immigrant German “Hamburgers” Tormented and Captured at Petersburg

140. German General Weitzel and His African Canadians at Petersburg

141. Irish Regiment at the Beginning of the End of the Confederacy at Five Forks

142. Richmond Burning: The German Immigrant and Black Troops Who Saved the City

143. Appomattox: The Capture of a Confederate Army & the Fall from Grace of an Immigrant General

 

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