13th Amendment: Immigrants and the end of slavery in America

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Black troops, sometimes with immigrant officers, played a key role in ending slavery.
Black troops, sometimes with immigrant officers, played a key role in ending slavery.

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The Emancipation Proclamation was a dangerously weak pillar to support the freedom of America’s four million slaves. It was an executive order, taken as a military measure during a civil war, that critics said was contrary to the Constitutional protection of property. It also applied only to those slaves in areas in rebellion against the United States. Nearly a million slaves in loyal states were left out. Even if the Proclamation was legally valid, it gave the freed slaves no specified rights. Were they citizens of the United States? Could they vote? The Constitution, at least as it had been interpreted by the Supreme Court, said that blacks had no rights whites were obliged to respect.1

In 1863, the Women’s Loyal National League circulated a petition calling for the immediate end of all slavery. At the organization’s convention that year, Polish immigrant Ernestine Rose told the women delegates that the Constitution could not be allowed to stand in the way of the abolition of slavery. She said that “if written constitutions are in the way of human freedom, suspend them till they can be improved.” She told her sisters that while “a good constitution is a good thing,” that “even the best of constitutions need sometimes to be amended and improved.”2

A resolution by Germans in Cleveland in 1863 calling for a Constitutional amendment outlawing slavery was met with scorn by Lincoln’s Attorney General Edward Bates who said that the German “Radicals”  were in “practical ignorance of our political institutions and of the very meaning of the phrase ‘Liberty by Law,’” in calling for Constitutional change. A year later Bates himself, a former Know Nothing, would be calling for the same “radical” amendment.3

The reluctance of Americans to amend the Constitution can be hard for someone today to understand. Native-born Americans in the 1860s were the grandchildren of the revolutionary generation that had created the United States. Figures like Washington and Jefferson were held in awe and depicted in imagery that was reserved for gods in the Old World. 4

Before the Civil War, only 12 amendments had been adopted to the Constitution and 10 of these, the Bill of Rights, had been ratified at the very beginning of the nation’s history. Only two amendments had been adopted over the next sixty years. 5

13th-recruiting-posterThe promise of freedom was used to recruit escaped slaves into the Union Army. In 1864 many asked if the black soldiers and their families would stay forever free.

Many who supported the abolition of slavery, were nervous about tinkering with the founding document of the nation. There were a few voices of dissent from this sect of unamendability. Among the most prominent was a German immigrant who had been a leading legal scholar while a professor at Columbia University and who had crafted the first codified rules of warfare for Lincoln.  Professor Francis Lieber wrote to his friend Major General Henry Halleck explaining that “for more than 15 years I have been convinced that the Const[itution] required to be amended.” Halleck was Lincoln’s General-in-Chief of the Union Army. 6

Lieber believed, according to historian Michael Vorenberg, that the Constitution was a living document that needed to be amended and fine-tuned as the nation matured and grew. Lieber did not consider the Founding Fathers as all-seeing sages, but rather as normal men whose work could be flawed. In fact, he pointed out, the Constitution had been so imperfect that the men who framed it soon added a dozen amendments. As Lieber put it, the Framers “had forgotten very important things,” in their haste to create a government. 7

Lieber also saw the Framers of the Constitution as compromisers, who had struck a deal on slavery to create the Union with no expectation that slavery would survive forever. When the 13th Amendment abolishing slavery was finally proposed, Lieber warned that merely ending slavery would not be enough. He assumed that Southern whites would try to keep freed slaves in a state of permanent subjugation, so he argued for other amendments that would give blacks civil equality. He wrote an essay in which he also proposed that anyone who tried to hold blacks as slaves after the Abolition amendment was ratified should be punished by death. Blacks held in slavery would be considered the victims of a crime for which capital punishment was appropriate. 8.

On advice from Pennsylvania lawyer Horace Binney, Lieber also inserted in his essay a proposed amendment granting citizenship to former slaves and all people of color.  Lieber was head of the Loyal Publication Society, the leading Republican think tank of its day, and he published his ideas on amendments in widely read essays. 9

The July 1863 Draft Riots were a convulsion of violence against Lincoln’s draft which soon expressed working class antagonism to emancipation by many Irish New Yorkers. More than a dozen blacks were lynched in racist attacks by Irish immigrants. After the bodies were cleared, some Irish began to reconsider slavery. Irish voters moved away from the Copperhead Mozart Hall Democratic machine represented by former-mayor Fernando Wood and towards the War Democrats of Tammany Hall. Tammany, under the control of Boss William Tweed, would soon be the preeminent Irish political machine in the country. Tammy increasingly saw emancipation as a route towards Union victory. 10

Other voices in the Irish community, outside of Tammany, were raised in opposition to slavery. In the fall of 1863, Brigadier General Thomas Francis Meagher, founder of the Irish Brigade, said that slavery was “a cancerous disease. …It was the glaring disgrace, of this great nation, and a violent contradiction of the principles on which it was established.” 11

An Irish revolutionary himself, Meagher wrote that slavery was “in conflict with [Americans’] humanity and conscience” and that it “falsified the spirit, and neutralized the glory of a Republic which otherwise was…incomparable.”12

Colonel Patrick Guiney spoke out against slavery as well. Severely wounded at the Wilderness, the immigrant commander of the Irish 9th Massachusetts called slavery “a great crime against the human race” in speech before the 1864 election.13

In 1864, an Irish immigrant, E.L. Godkin wrote a well-regarded essay The Constitution and its Defects in which he said that “Constitution worship” was blocking progress. Native born Americans often saw the Constitution as a perfect object “which required no modification, and to which coming generations would have to adapt themselves, not it to them.” This constitutional conservatism must end if the defects in the system which led to the violence of the Civil War were ever to be corrected. 14

Historian Michael Vorenberg suggests that Godkin and Lieber were able to look at the Constitution afresh because they had not been raised within the American secular church of adoration of the Constitution. They understood that a Constitution that established a government that had nearly become extinct 70 years after it was adopted needed to change to secure peace to the people of the United States.15

In March 1864 Tammany Hall’s general election committee announced that “slavery, as a subject of political agitation, has passed from the politics of this country.” A Tammany man in the New York State Assembly, Carolan O’Brien Bryant, introduced a resolution calling for the state’s congressional delegation to support an abolition of slavery. Upon hearing this, John Nicolay, Lincoln’s German secretary wrote that “When Bryant in the N. Y. Legislature offers a series of resolves declaring [slavery] should be extinguished…the people may take courage that the country is progressing.” 16

Some immigrant Democrats supported the amendment because they considered the Emancipation Proclamation a usurpation of power by the president. With slavery already endangered, Scottish immigrant James Gordon Bennett of the New York Herald believed it was best for Democrats to “take a new departure-to strike out boldly for an amendment of the constitution which will forever settle the troublesome question of slavery by removing the institution from the country.” This was preferable, he wrote in February 1864, to the “unconstitutional, mischievous and impractical emancipation scheme of President Lincoln.”17

German immigrants in Missouri believed that the necessity of ending slavery through constitutional amendment was so great that they threatened to splinter the Republican Party in that Border State because the party was dragging its feet on Abolition. In the summer of 1864, they were outflanked on their left when Lincoln endorsed the 13th Amendment. The Republicans soon swept to victory in the fall elections. 18

Although the Republicans would soon come to power with enough votes to pass the amendment without Democratic support, Lincoln pressed for passage in the old Congress’s Lame Duck session. Fernando Wood, once an ally of New York’s Irish community, led the resistance to the amendment. The splintering of the Irish vote became apparent when two weeks prior to the House vote on the 13th Amendment, Tammany sent a delegation to Congress to tell members of the New York delegation that they “must relieve [Democrats] from the pro-slavery burden that now ruins the party.” The Tammany men said that the amendment was a “democratic measure…and it ought to be supported by Democrats.” 19

13th-amendd-passage0The passage of the 13th Amendment in the House of Representatives on January 31, 1865 by a vote of 119 to 56 set off wild celebrations in the chamber. The amendment still had to go to the states for ratification. It became part of the Constitution 150 years ago on December 18, 1865.

When the amendment finally passed in the House of Representatives, Congressman Russell Thayer wrote to Francis Lieber that “We have wiped away the black spot from our bright shield and surely God will bless us for it…He seemed to smile from heaven on a regenerated people.” 20

Some resistance to the 13th Amendment persisted, but Lincoln’s assassination persuaded Democratic holdouts that they would be permanently identified with rebellion, assassination, and slavery if they did not pass it.  Even the New York Irish American newspaper, which had once defended the Draft Rioters, said that “It is now admitted, on all hands, that the war has, at least, settled one issue, …that negro slavery, so long a bone of contention, and the fruitful source of agitation…is “dead,” So let it be; we expect nothing else; and so we stated to the advocates of secession, in 1860… “ But the Irish American warned that even though slavery would soon be abolished, the Abolitionists would not end their agitation. Abolitionists would soon move on from the Emancipation of blacks to granting them the vote, it predicted.21

Francis Lieber, no doubt, hoped the racist editors of the Irish American were right.

Resources:

Lincoln and the Thirteenth Amendment by Christian G. Samito published by Southern Illinois University Press (2015) is a terrific new book on the Civil War president’s reaction to the proposed amendment and his role in enacting it. The work is part of a series of brief books on Lincoln focusing on discrete topics called The Concise Lincoln Library. If you saw the movieLincoln you will want to read this scholarly look at the same territory.

Abraham Lincoln and the ImmigrantFinal Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment by Michael Vorenberg published by Cambridge University Press (2001) is an in-depth history of the ending of slavery. A rich scholarly account of one of the most important events in American history, My own essay relied heavily on Vorenberg’s work.

Both Samito and Vorenberg are to be commended for their inclusion of immigrants in the story of the 13th Amendment. Their two fine works incorporate immigrant voices into the American saga.

Sources:

1. Lincoln and the Thirteenth Amendment by Christian G. Samito published by Southern Illinois University Press (2015);  Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment by Michael Vorenberg published by Cambridge University Press (2001);Letters on Our National Struggle by Thomas Francis Meagher (1863)  Letter to the Dublin Citizen Sept. 26, 1863.
2. Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment by Michael Vorenberg published by Cambridge University Press (2001) Kindle Location 542
3. Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment by Michael Vorenberg published by Cambridge University Press (2001) Kindle Location 554
4. Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment by Michael Vorenberg published by Cambridge University Press (2001)
5. Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment by Michael Vorenberg published by Cambridge University Press (2001)
6. Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment by Michael Vorenberg published by Cambridge University Press (2001)
7. Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment by Michael Vorenberg published by Cambridge University Press (2001)
8. Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment by Michael Vorenberg published by Cambridge University Press (2001) Kindle Location 820-860
9. Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment by Michael Vorenberg published by Cambridge University Press (2001) Kindle Location 850-900
10. Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment by Michael Vorenberg published by Cambridge University Press (2001)
11.  Lincoln and the Thirteenth Amendment by Christian G. Samito published by Southern Illinois University Press (2015) p. 46-47; Letters on Our National Struggle by Thomas Francis Meagher (1863)  Letter to the Dublin Citizen Sept. 26, 1863. p.5
12.  Lincoln and the Thirteenth Amendment by Christian G. Samito published by Southern Illinois University Press (2015) p. 46-47;  Letters on Our National Struggle by Thomas Francis Meagher (1863)  Letter to the Dublin Citizen Sept. 26, 1863. p. 5
13.  Lincoln and the Thirteenth Amendment by Christian G. Samito published by Southern Illinois University Press (2015) p. 66
14. Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment by Michael Vorenberg published by Cambridge University Press (2001) Kindle Location 2390-2410
15. Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment by Michael Vorenberg published by Cambridge University Press (2001) Kindle Location 2390-2410
16. Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment by Michael Vorenberg published by Cambridge University Press (2001) Kindle Location 975-985
17. Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment by Michael Vorenberg published by Cambridge University Press (2001) Kindle Location 940-960.
18. Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment by Michael Vorenberg published by Cambridge University Press (2001)
19. Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment by Michael Vorenberg published by Cambridge University Press (2001) Kindle Location 2530-2537
20. Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment by Michael Vorenberg published by Cambridge University Press (2001) Kindle Location 2593-2596
21. Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment by Michael Vorenberg published by Cambridge University Press (2001); New York Irish American May 27, 1865

The Immigrants’ Civil War is a series that examines the role of immigrants in our bloodiest war. Articles will appear twice monthly between 2011 and 2017. Here are the articles we have published so far:

1. Immigrant America on the Eve of the Civil War – Take a swing around the United States and see where immigrants were coming from and where they were living in 1861.

2. 1848: The Year that Created Immigrant America – Revolutions in Europe, famine and oppression in Ireland, and the end of the Mexican War made 1848 a key year in American immigration history.

3. Carl Schurz: From German Radical to American Abolitionist– A teenaged revolutionary of 1848, Carl Schurz brought his passion for equality with him to America.

4. Immigrant Leader Carl Schurz Tells Lincoln to Stand Firm Against Slavery.

5. …And the War Came to Immigrant America -The impact of the firing on Fort Sumter on America’s immigrants

6. The Rabbi Who Seceded From the South

7. The Fighting 69th-Irish New York Declares War

8. The Germans Save St. Louis for the Union

9. New York’s Irish Rush to Save Washington

10. Immigrant Day Laborers Help Build the First Fort to Protect Washington-The Fighting 69th use their construction skills.

11. Carl Schurz Meets With Lincoln To Arm the Germans

12. Immigrants Rush to Join the Union Army-Why?– The reasons immigrants gave for enlisting early in the war.

13. Why the Germans Fought for the Union?

14. Why Did the Irish Fight When They Were So Despised?

15. The “Sons of Garibaldi” Join the Union Army

16. The Irish Tigers From Louisiana

17. Immigrant Regiments on Opposite Banks of Bull Run -The Fighting 69th and the Louisiana Tigers

18. The St. Louis Germans Set Out To Free Missouri

19. Wilson’s Creek Drowns Immigrant Dream of Free Missouri

20. English-Only in 1861: No Germans Need Apply

21. After Bull Run: Mutineers, Scapegoats, and the Dead

22. St. Louis Germans Revived by Missouri Emancipation Proclamation

23. Jews Fight the Ban on Rabbis as Chaplains

24. Lincoln Dashes German Immigrants Hopes for Emancipation

25. When Hatred of Immigrants Stopped the Washington Monument from Being Built

26. Inside the Mind of a Know Nothing

27. The Evolution of the Know Nothings

28. The Know Nothings Launch a Civil War Against Immigrant America

29. The Know Nothings: From Triumph to Collapse

30. The Lasting Impact of the Know Nothings on Immigrant America.

31. Lincoln, the Know Nothings, and Immigrant America.

32. Irish Green and Black America: Race on the Edge of Civil War.

33. The Democratic Party and the Racial Consciousness of Irish Immigrants Before the Civil War

34. The Confederates Move Against Latino New Mexico

35. Nuevomexicanos Rally As Confederates Move Towards Santa Fe—But For Which Side?

36. The Confederate Army in New Mexico Strikes at Valverde

37. The Swedish Immigrant Who Saved the U.S. Navy

38. The Confederates Capture Santa Fe and Plot Extermination

39. A German Regiment Fights for “Freedom and Justice” at Shiloh-The 32nd Indiana under Col. August Willich.

40. The Know Nothing Colonel and the Irish Soldier Confronting slavery and bigotry.

41. Did Immigrants Hand New Orleans Over to the Union Army?

42. Did New Orleans’ Immigrants See Union Soldiers As Occupiers or Liberators?

43. Union Leader Ben Butler Seeks Support in New Orleans-When General Ben Butler took command in New Orleans in 1862, it was a Union outpost surrounded by Confederates. Butler drew on his experience as a pro-immigrant politician to win over the city’s Irish and Germans.

44. Union General Ben Butler Leverages Immigrant Politics in New Orleans

45. Thomas Meager: The Man Who Created the Irish Brigade

46. Thomas Meagher: The Irish Rebel Joins the Union Army

47. Recruiting the Irish Brigade-Creating the Irish American

48. Cross Keys: A German Regiment’s Annihilation in the Shenandoah Valley

49. The Irish Brigade Moves Towards Richmond-The Irish brigade in the Peninsula Campaign from March 17 to June 2, 1862.

50. Peninsula Emancipation: Irish Soldiers Take Steps on the Road to Freedom-The Irish Brigade and Irish soldiers from Boston free slaves along the march to Richmond.

51. Slaves Immigrate from the Confederacy to the United States During the Peninsula Campaign

52. The Irish 9th Massachusetts Cut Off During the Seven Days Battles

53. Union Defeat and an Irish Medal of Honor at the End of the Seven Days

54. Making Immigrant Soldiers into Citizens-Congress changed the immigration laws to meet the needs of a nation at war.

55. Carl Schurz: To Win the Civil War End Slavery

56. Carl Schurz: From Civilian to General in One Day

57. Did Anti-German Bigotry Help Cause Second Bull Run Defeat?

58. Immigrant Soldiers Chasing Lee Into Maryland

59. Scottish Highlanders Battle at South Mountain

60. Emancipation 150: “All men are created equal, black and white”– A German immigrant reacts to the Emancipation Proclamation

61. The Irish Brigade at Antietam

62. Private Peter Welsh Joins the Irish Brigade

63. Preliminaries to Emancipation: Race, the Irish, and Lincoln

64. The Politics of Emancipation: Lincoln Suffers Defeat

65. Carl Schurz Blames Lincoln for Defeat

66. The Irish Brigade and Virginia’s Civilians Black and White

67. The Irish Brigade and the Firing of General McClellan

68. General Grant Expells the Jews

69. The Irish Brigade Moves Towards Its Destruction At Fredericksburg.

70. Fredericksburg: The Worst Day in the Young Life of Private McCarter of the Irish Brigade

71. Forever Free: Emancipation New Year Day 1863

72. Private William McCarter of the Irish Brigade Hospitalized After Fredericksburg

73. The Immigrant Women That Nursed Private McCarter After Fredericksburg

74. Nursing Nuns of the Civil War

75. The Biases Behind Grant’s Order Expelling the Jews

76. The Jewish Community Reacts to Grant’s Expulsion Order

77. Lincoln Overturns Grant’s Order Against the Jews

78. Irish Families Learn of the Slaughter at Fredericksburg

79. Requiem for the Irish Brigade

80. St. Patrick’s Day in the Irish Brigade

81. Student Asks: Why Don’t We Learn More About Immigrants in the Civil War?

82. Missouri’s German Unionists: From Defeat to Uncertain Victory

83. Missouri Germans Contest Leadership of Unionist Cause

84. German Leader Franz Sigel’s Victory Earns a Powerful Enemy

85. Immigrant Unionists Marching Towards Pea Ridge

86. German Immigrants at the Battle of Pea Ridge: Opening Moves

87. Pea Ridge: The German Unionists Outflanked

88. German Immigrants at the Battle of Pea Ridge

89. The Organization of the “German” XI Corps

90. The Irish Brigade on the Road to Chancellorsville

91. The “German” XI Corps on the Eve of Chancellorsville

92. The “Germans Run Away” at Chancellorsville

93. The New York Times, the Germans, and the Anatomy of a Scapegoat at Chancellorsville

94. An Irish Soldier Between Chancellorsville and Gettysburg

95. Lee’s Army Moves Towards Gettysburg: Black Refugees Flee

96. Iron Brigade Immigrants Arrive at Gettysburg

97. Iron Brigade Immigrants Go Into Battle the First Day at Gettysburg

98. The “German” XI Corps at Gettysburg July 1, 1863

99. An Irish Colonel and the Defense of Little Round Top on the Second Day at Gettysburg

100. A Prayer Before Death for the Irish Brigade at Gettysburg: July 2, 1863

101. The Irish Regiment that Ended “Pickett’s Charge”: July 3, 1863

102. Five Points on the Edge of the Draft Riots

103. Before the Draft Riots: The Cultivation of Division

104. The New York Draft Riots Begin

105. Convulsion of Violence: The First Day of the New York Draft Riots

106. The Draft Riots End in a Sea of Blood-July 14-15, 1863.

107. Pat Cleburne: The Irish Confederate and the Know Nothings

108. Killing Pat Cleburne: Know Nothing Violence

109. Pat Cleburne: Arresting a General, Becoming a General

110. The Immigrant Story Behind “Twelve Years a Slave”

111. A German Immigrant Woman’s Gettysburg Address

112. Pat Cleburne: The Irish Confederate’s Emancipation Proclamation

113. Pat Cleburne: The South Can’t Use Black Soldiers Without Ending Slavery

114. The Suppression of Pat Cleburne’s Emancipation Proposal

115. An Irish Immigrant Colonel’s Warnings Ignored at Chickamauga

116. An Immigrant Colonel’s Fighting Retreat at Chickamauga

117. August Willich: German Socialist at Chickamauga

118. Hans Heg:at Chickamauga: Norwegian Commander on the Eve of Battle

119. Ivan and Nadine Turchin: Russian Revolutionary Aristocrats at Chickamauga

120. German Immigrants Pinned Down at Chickamauga

121. Hans Heg: To Die for His Adopted Country at Chickamauga

122. Patrick Guiney: An Irish Colonel on the Edge of the Wilderness

123. Immigrants March Out of The Wilderness and Into a Wicked Hail of Gunfire

124. Peter Welsh in the Irish Brigade’s Purgatory at Spotsylvania

125. Peter Welsh: What Sacrifice Must the Immigrant Make for His Adopted Land?

126. A Second Irish Brigade’s Catastrophe at a Forgotten Fight Near Fredericksburg

127. An Irish Man and a French Woman Between Spotsylvania and Cold Harbor

128. Two Irish Brigades Swept Away by a Hurricane from Hell at Cold Harbor

129. Petersburg: The Start of a Ten Month Siege that Devoured Men and Disabled the Irish Brigade

130. A Volcano in Virginia: The Battle of the Crater

131. 1864 Election: The Immigrant Voter & Abraham Lincoln

132. August Belmont: The German Jewish Immigrant Who Led the Opposition to Lincoln’s 1864 Reelection

133. Lincoln and the Superiority of the “Negro” over the Irish

134. Lincoln’s Germans and the Election of 1864

135. Lincoln’s German Lawyer Comes Out Swinging in the Election of 1864

136. Lincoln Wins the Election of 1864 With Immigrant Votes

137. American Refugee Camp in Civil War Kentucky Destroyed by Union Soldiers

138. Kentucky Civil War Refugee Camp Reborn and Reconstructed After Expulsions

139. Immigrant German “Hamburgers” Tormented and Captured at Petersburg

140. German General Weitzel and His African Canadians at Petersburg

141. Irish Regiment at the Beginning of the End of the Confederacy at Five Forks

142. Richmond Burning: The German Immigrant and Black Troops Who Saved the City

143. Appomattox: The Capture of a Confederate Army & the Fall from Grace of an Immigrant General

144. Lincoln Assassinated: John Wilkes Booth’s Immigrant Conspirators

145. Immigrants Hunt Lincoln’s Killers and Help Capture the Confederate President

146. Lincoln’s Murder and the New York Irish American

147. Lincoln’s Funeral in Immigrant New York

148. German General Carl Schurz Begins His Investigation of the Post-War South

149. Carl Schurz Warned That a “System of Terrorism” Was Taking Hold in the Post-War South in 1865

150. Immigrants in the Union Navy: Minorities in the Majority

151. How Immigrants Were Recruited into the United States Navy

152. African Canadian Sailors in the Union Navy

153. High School Student Proves Professor Wrong When He Denied “No Irish Need Apply” Signs Existed

154. The Fallout from No Irish Need Apply Article Spreads Worldwide

155. No Irish Need Apply Professor Gets into a Fight With Our Blogger Pat Young Over Louisa May Alcott

156. Professor Behind No Irish Need Apply Denial May Have Revealed Motive for Attacking 14 Year Old Historian

157.  A Scottish Socialist and a German General Work to Help Slaves Become Freedpeople-Robert Dale Owen, Carl Schurz and the founding of the Freedmen’s Bureau.

158. Our Man in Sweden: Recruiting Immigrants to Strengthen the Union War Effort

159. German Immigrants and the End of Slavery in Missouri

160. 13th Amendment: Immigrants and the end of slavery in America

Cultural

Painting of the Return of the 69th from Bull Run Unearthed

Blog Posts

The Real Story Behind The Immigrants’ Civil War Photo

Why I’m Writing The Immigrants’ Civil War

The Five Meanings of “The Immigrants’ Civil War”

No Irish Need Apply: High School Student Proves Yale PhD. Wrong When He Claimed “No Irish Need Apply” Signs Never Existed

The Fallout from No Irish Need Apply Article Spreads Worldwide

No Irish Need Apply Professor Gets into a Fight With Our Blogger Pat Young Over Louisa May Alcott

Professor Behind No Irish Need Apply Denial May Have Revealed Motive for Attacking 14 Year Old Historian

Books for Learning More About The Immigrants’ Civil War

Free Yale Course with David Blight on the Civil War

Cinco de Mayo Holiday Dates Back to the American Civil War

New Immigrants Try to Come to Terms with America’s Civil War

Important Citizenship Site to be Preserved-Fortress Monroe

Should Lincoln Have Lost His Citizenship?

The First Casualties of the War Were Irish-Was that a Coincidence?

Civil War Anniversaries-History, Marketing, and Human Rights

Memorial Day’s Origins at the End of the Civil War

Germans Re-enact the Civil War-But Why Are They Dressed in Gray?

Leading Historians Discuss 1863 New York City Draft Riots

The Upstate New York Town that Joined the Confederacy

Civil War Blogs I Read Every Week

First Annual The Immigrants’ Civil War Award Goes to Joe Reinhart

Damian Shiels Wins Second Annual The Immigrants’ Civil War Award

Mother Jones: Civil War Era Immigrant and Labor Leader

Juneteenth for Immigrants

Immigration Vacation -Civil War Sites

Fort Schuyler-Picnic where the Irish Brigade trained

No Irish Need Apply: High School Student Proves Yale PhD. Wrong When He Claimed “No Irish Need Apply” Signs Never Existed

The Fallout from No Irish Need Apply Article Spreads Worldwide

No Irish Need Apply Professor Gets into a Fight With Our Blogger Pat Young Over Louisa May Alcott

Professor Behind No Irish Need Apply Denial May Have Revealed Motive for Attacking 14 Year Old Historian

Books for Learning More About The Immigrants’ Civil War

Free Yale Course with David Blight on the Civil War

Cinco de Mayo Holiday Dates Back to the American Civil War


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